“Thinking Fast and Slow” is an amazing book by the Nobel Prize winning psychologist, Daniel Kahneman. I have enjoyed many books on the subject of how the brain works, but none has been as clear as this one.
Dr. Kahneman uses the fast and energetic System 1 along with the slow and lazy System 2 to explain how people answer different types of questions. While our brains are powerful and usually successful, we are prone to certain types of errors because of the way our brains work and we are often much less rational (internally consistent) than we would like to think. Like many authors, Dr. Kahneman is occasionally guilty of taking his perspective farther than is merited and portraying the opposing point of view in radical terms, but the book overall is well worth pushing through those points.
If you want to be intrigued and entertained while gaining some insight into how people think, read “Blink” by Malcolm Gladwell. If you really just want to understand the brain and the foundations of thought, I highly recommend “Thinking Fast and Slow” by Daniel Kahneman.